earthe_lsfjlsf.jpgearth_saldjlsajfa.jpgLayers of the Earth

Crust- The crust is the outermost solid shell. It is composed of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rock. It is underlain by the mantle. The temperature increases with depth. The temperature is from 392 degrees F to 400 degrees F.
Mantle- The mantle is a highly viscious layer between the crust and outer core. It is about 2,890 km thick. It occupies about 80% of Earth's volume. It is part of a terrestrial planet. Past episodes of melting and volcanism of the mantle have prouduced a a thin crust of crystallized melt products.
Inner Core- The inner core is a solid sphere at about 1,220 km in radius. It consists of an iron-nickel alloy. It may have a temperature similar to the Sun's surface. The existance of the inner core was found in 1936. The actual temperature is about 9,800 degrees F.
Outer Core- The outer core is a liquid layer. It is about 2,260 kilometers thick. It is composed of iron and nickel. It lies above the Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle. The temperature is a range from 4,400
degrees celsius to 6,100 degrees celsius which is near the inner core.


Geologists-scientists who study the forces that make and shape planet Earth
Rock-maretial that forms Earth's hard surface
Constructive forces-shape the surface by building up mountains and landmasses
Destructive forces- those that slowly wear away mountains and eventually, every other feature on the surface
Continents- 7 great landmasses surrounded by oceans
Seismic waves- tells how the Earth is put together
Pressure- force pushing on a surface or area
Crust- a layer of rock that forms Earth's outer skin
Mantle- la layer of hot, solid rock, below the crust
Lithosphere- upper mantle and bottom crust
Asthenosphere- a soft layer
Core-made up of 2 parts
Outer core-molten metal that surroundes
Inner core-dense ball of solid metal
Heat transfer- the movement of evergy from a warmer object to a cooler object
Radiation- the transfer of energy through empty space
Conduction- heat transfer by direct contact of particles of matter
Convection- heat transfer by the movement of a heated fluid
Alfred Wegener- young German scientist wh;o made a hypothesis that Earth's continents had moved
Pangaea-Supercontinent meaning "all lands"
Continental drift- Wegener's idea that the continents slowly moved over Earth's surface
Evidence form landforms-mountains ranges and other features on the continents
Evidence from fossils-the fossil, Glossopter is a fernlike plant that lived 250 million years ago, glossopteris has been in rocks in Africs, South America, Australia, India, and Antartica, the occurance of glossopteris on these widely seperated landmasses convince Wegener that the continents have once been united.
Evidence from climate-island of Spitsbergen, it is ice covered and has a harsh polar climate. Possils of tropical plants were found on Spitsbergen so the Island must have had a warm and mild climate